MONTESSORI METHOD PDF

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hope that the method itself, in its effect upon the children of America, may . [http ://blocwindcotssidi.ga] by Maria. Project Gutenberg · 59, free ebooks · 5 by Maria Montessori. The Montessori Method by Maria Montessori. No cover available. Download. Method. The Origins of an. Educational Innovation: Including an Abridged and. Annotated Edition of. Maria Montessori's. The Montessori Method.


Montessori Method Pdf

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Download The Montessori Method free in PDF & EPUB format. Download Maria Montessori's The Montessori Method for your site, tablet. the Montessori method!) 3. We observe our children. The child has so much to teach us about learning. By watching closely, we can modify our lessons and. Montessori method indeed helped learners to improve their The Montessori Method of learning was developed by Dr. Maria Montessori.

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Correcting children may result in them being scared to attempt anything in fear of making another mistake. Children will make mistakes and we need to teach them in a nice manner. Giving the children freedom and choice, supporting them in their choice by making sure they are safe, feeding their inquiring minds in a way that they can understand and observing their needs and fulfilling these can be the key to helping your children develop their full potential.

The prepared environment is important part of Montessori. It is the link for a child to learn from adults. The environment has to be safe for the child to explore freely.

The environment has to be ready and beautiful for the children so it invites them to work. Montessori refers to work as an activity the child does or what many people might call play. She calls this work since it is through this that they create themselves and it is not just a play.

Their play is their work and they are still enjoying it. Absorbent Mind Montessori observed how children learned the language without anyone teaching them. Children under the age of three, do not need to have lessons in order to learn, they simply absorb everything in the environment by experiencing it, being part of it.

It is therefore important that the environment set up is good, nice and positive since this is what the child will absorb whether he chooses to or not. The language of the adult is one that a child will easily pick up. For example, if he places a cylinder in a hole too large for it, he finds at the end that he has at least one cylinder left which does not fit in the remaining hole; he has to backtrack and discover his error and, in the process, he sharpens his capacity to observe and dis- criminate, which would not occur if his mistake were merely pointed out to him by the teacher.

She identified the fact that very young children pass through a "sensitive period for sensory-moter activities," a time when they experi- ence a keen interest in touching, tasting, handling and exploring everything in sight. She found that when a child is provided with material that stim- ulates his senses and engages him in purposeful activity, he progresses easily and naturally to conceptual "cultural" skiiis.

The process of learning to write is an example of this progression. Find- ing that the texture of things is particularly fascinating to a young child, Dr.

Montessori devised a sandpaper alphabet.

Then he can use an alphabet set, which requires no writing, to compose words and sentences; he acquires the ability to manipulate a pencil, by means of a variety of other exercises; then, one day, he integrates his knowledge of how each letter is formed, how to handle a pencil and how to compose sentences.

The result is what Dr. Montessori calls "the ex- plosion into writing. These exercises are of great importance because the young child's muscular system is not yet fully coordinated.

As Dr. Montessori observed, the body is an instrument for carrying out the pur- poses of the mind, but a young child's body is not fully in his control.

He needs practice in purposeful, complex actions order to gain that control and the resulting sense of efficacy. Each of the practical life exercises was broken down by Dr.

Beatrice Hessen, The Montessori Method.pdf

Montessori into a series of separate steps; by performing one step at a time, the child is able to master complex muscular coordinations. He finds great pleasure in this work not only because he is eager to acquire new skills, but because each new skill gives him further evidence of his growing self-sufficiency and competence.

The practical life exercises serve another purpose as well. She saw different characteristics, learning modes, and developmental imperatives active in each of these planes, and called for educational approaches specific to each period. During this period, Montessori observed that the child undergoes striking physical and psychological development.

The Montessori Method

The first-plane child is seen as a concrete, sensorial explorer and learner engaged in the developmental work of psychological self-construction and building functional independence.

Montessori introduced several concepts to explain this work, including the absorbent mind, sensitive periods, and normalization.

Montessori described the young child's behavior of effortlessly assimilating the sensorial stimuli of his or her environment, including information from the senses, language, culture, and the development of concepts with the term "absorbent mind".

She believed that this is a power unique to the first plane, and that it fades as the child approached age six.

The Montessori Method by Maria Montessori

In Montessori education, the classroom environment responds to these periods by making appropriate materials and activities available while the periods are active in each individual young child. During this period, Montessori observed physical and psychological changes in children, and developed a classroom environment, lessons, and materials, to respond to these new characteristics.

Physically, she observed the loss of baby teeth and the lengthening of the legs and torso at the beginning of the plane, and a period of uniform growth following. Psychologically, she observed the "herd instinct", or the tendency to work and socialize in groups, as well as the powers of reason and imagination.

Developmentally, she believed the work of the second plane child is the formation of intellectual independence, of moral sense, and of social organization.

Montessori characterized the third plane by the physical changes of puberty and adolescence, but also psychological changes. She emphasized the psychological instability and difficulties in concentration of this age, as well as the creative tendencies and the development of "a sense of justice and a sense of personal dignity.

Developmentally, Montessori believed that the work of the third plane child is the construction of the adult self in society.

Montessori wrote comparatively little about this period and did not develop an educational program for the age. She envisioned young adults prepared by their experiences in Montessori education at the lower levels ready to fully embrace the study of culture and the sciences in order to influence and lead civilization.

She believed that economic independence in the form of work for money was critical for this age, and felt that an arbitrary limit to the number of years in university level study was unnecessary, as the study of culture could go on throughout a person's life. Some smaller aspects that could be integrated into montessori schools include geography, art, and gardening.The Italian edition of " Il Metodo della Pedagogia Scientifica " had no preface, because the book itself I consider nothing more than the preface to a more comprehensive work, the aim and extent of which it only indicates.

A Montessori directress does no common "teaching", but she is called upon for very skillful and very tiring effort. But research cited by Lillard shows that peer and group learning functions best when we work with people we know well. It would seem, on the contrary, as James concluded, that the mind works quite as naturally in the opposite direction—grasping wholes first, especially such as have a practical interest, and then working down to their formal elements.

The general question of individual liberty is thus reduced to a series of practical problems of adjustment.

To fill up most of a morning with sense-training is to give it except perhaps in the case of the youngest pupils undue importance. To differentiate in method between these two kinds of activity may be the best way to keep them both in an effective educational programme. The modest design of these incomplete notes is to give the results of an experiment that apparently opens the way for putting into practice those new principles of science which in these last years are tending to revolutionise the work of education.